Through human microbiome sequencing, we can better understand how host evolutionary and ontogenetic history is reflected in the microbial function. However, there has been no information on the gut metagenome configuration in hunter-gatherer populations, posing a gap in our knowledge of gut microbiota (GM)-host mutualism arising from a lifestyle that describes over 90% of human evolutionary history. Here, the authors present the first metagenomic analysis of GM from Hadza hunter-gatherers of Tanzania, showing a unique enrichment in metabolic pathways that aligns with the dietary and environmental factors characteristic of their foraging lifestyle.

Highlights

*

The Hadza gut microbiome metabolizes amino acids and broad-spectrum polysaccharides

*

Functional flexibility for Hadza gut microbiota corresponds to diet fluctuations

*

Elements of the Hadza gut resistome resemble those typical of soil

*

The Italian resistome shows "farm to fork"-derived aetiology

Read the full text herehttp://www.cell.com/current-biology/abstract/S0960-9822(15)00537-0.

Comment